Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period.
The Romans usually treated their traditional narratives as historical, even when these have miraculous or supernatural elements. The stories are often concerned with politics and morality, and how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism is an important theme. When the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual, augury, and institutions than with theology or cosmogony.
The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, and by the later artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors. In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks (interpretatio graeca), and to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends also have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks.
While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature, Romulus and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse. Because Latin literature was more widely known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans often had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical.
Most of the Roman deities are the same as in Greek myth, differentiating themselves just by name.
The Roman pantheon organization ranges from primordial deities like Terra to guardian gods like the Lares. Jupiter was the king of the Roman gods.
The Twelve Olympians of Roman mythology:
- Jupiter (Greek: Zeus)
- Juno (Greek: Hera)
- Ceres (Greek: Demeter)
- Neptune (Greek: Poseidon)
- Bacchus (Greek: Dionysus)
- Apollo (Greek: Apollo)
- Diana (Greek: Artemis)
- Minerva (Greek: Athena)
- Venus (Greek: Aphrodite)
- Mars (Greek: Ares)
- Vulcan (Greek: Hephaestus)
- Mercury (Greek: Hermes)
- Vesta (Greek: Hestia)
Roman mythology is known for adopting deities from other mythologies, mainly Greek mythology.
|Asclepius||Greek||God of healing.|
|Attis||Phrygian||God of growth, fertility and vegetation.|
|Bacchus||Greek (Dionysos)||God of wine.|
|Bellona||Greek (Enyo), or Etruscan||Goddess of war and battles.|
|Bubona||Celt (Epona)||Goddess of horses and cattle.|
|Ceres||Greek (Demeter)||Goddess of corn, agriculture and grain.|
|Cupid||Greek||God of love.|
|Cybele||Phrygian (Magna Mater in Latin)||The Great Mother.|
|Dis||Celtic||God of the underworld and treasure in the form of gems and metals of the earth.|
|Endovelicus||Iberian Celt Hispania||The god of health and welfare.|
|Faunus||Greek (Pan)||God of the wilds and fertility.|
|Furies||Greek (Erinyes)||Goddesses of Vengeance.|
|Hercules||Greek (Heracles)||God of victory and commercial enterprise.|
|Isis||Egyptian||Goddess of marriage and womanhood.|
|Janus||Italii, Latin or Etruscan (Ani)||God of gates, doors, beginnings and endings. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest, the beginning of planting, at marriages, at births, etc. The month of January is named after him.|
|Mithras||Persian||God of the sun.|
|Ops||Greek||Goddess of the fertile earth, abundance, sowing, harvest and wealth.|
|Salus||Greek (Hygieia)||Goddess of health and prosperity. Festival was celebrated on March 30.|
|Serapis||Graeco-Egyptian||God of the sky.|
|Saturn||Greek (Cronos)||God of agriculture and the sowing of seeds.|
|Silvanus||Greek (Pan)||God of woods and fields.|
|Sol||Greek (Helios)||God of the sun.|
|Sol Invictus||Syrian||God of the sun.|
|Somnus||Greek (Hypnos)||God of sleep.|
|Tellus||Greek (Gaia)||Goddess of the earth. Fordicidia, held on April 15 was her festival.|
|Veiovis||Etruscan (Veive)||God of healing.|
|Victoria||Greek (Nike)||Goddess of victory.|
By the end of the Roman empire, Christianity was the official religion for the Romans.
In ancient Roman myth and religion, priests like the Arval Brethren use to make sacrifices on an annual basis to the Lares and the rest of Roman deities to guarantee good harvests and the health of the Emperor.
|Gods and goddesses of Roman mythology|
|Classical deities||Apollo • Bacchus/Liber • Diana • Ceres • Cupid • Faunus • Fortuna • Juno • Jupiter • Lares • Mars • Mercury • Minerva • Neptune • Pluto • Proserpina • Quirinus • Vejovis • Venus • Vesta • Vulcan|
|Other deities/articles||Genius • Hercules • Dei Lucrii • Eventus Bonus • Furina • Portunes • Mystery religions • Osirus • Isis • Cybele • Attis • Mithras • Sol Invictus|
|Roman mythology articles|
|Deities||Apollo • Bacchus • Bellona • Bona Dea • Castor and Pollux • Ceres • Cupid • Diana • Dīs Pater • Egeria • Fauna • Faunus • Flora • Genius • Hercules • Janus • Juno • Jupiter • Lares • Liber • Libertas • Mars • Mercury • Minerva • Orcus • Neptune • Penates • Pluto • Pomona • Priapus • Proserpina • Quirinus • Saturn • Silvanus • Sol • Venus • Vesta • Vulcan|
|Groups||Demideities • Deities • Titans|
|Creatures and monsters||Faun • Siren • Centaur|